HIFLOW  2.0
Concept for assembly and integration

Assembly and integration

A central concept to most finite element software is the assembly of the system vectors and matrices, as well as integration of functions such as error estimates over the whole mesh. All three operations are really integrations, but the assembly functions have one or two free indices, tied to the set of shape functions.

The matrix assembly computes the matrix that corresponds to the bilinear form $a(u,v)$ in the weak formulation of the problem. It is evaluated by integrating the weak form for every pair of global basis functions $(\varphi_i, \varphi_j)$

:

\[ A_{ij} = \int_{\Omega}{a(\varphi_j, \varphi_i)dx} \]

In finite element literature, $\varphi_i$ are usually called the test functions and $\varphi_j$ the trial functions.

Similarily, the vector assembly computes a matrix that corresponds to a linear form $l(v)$, e.g. the right-hand-side in the weak formulation, or a residual in a non-linear iteration:

\[ b_{i} = \int_{\Omega}{l(\varphi_i)dx} \]

Finally, simple integration of a function is often necessary:

\[ I = \int_{\Omega}{f(x)dx} \]

In the following, the generic expression $\int_{\Omega}{G dx}$ will be used to refer to any of the above three integrals over $\Omega$.

The computation of all three types of integrals can be performed with the functions in the assembly toolbox. The functions hiflow::GlobalAssembler::assemble_matrix(), hiflow::GlobalAssembler::assemble_vector() and hiflow::GlobalAssembler::integrate_scalar() can be used to to compute the integrals described above. Internally, these functions employ the popular "local assembly" algorithm, in which each integral over the global domain $\int_{\Omega}{ G dx}$ is decomposed into a sum of integrals over the local elements $K$ in the mesh $T$ that approximates $\Omega$:

\[ \int_{\Omega}{ G dx } = \sum_{K \in T}{\int_{K}{ G dx } } \]

The problem is hence reduced to evaluating the local integrals $\int_{K}{ G dx }$. This is done by the object local_asm, which is derived from hiflow::AssemblyAssistant, that the user provides to each of the global assembly functions. The functions are templates, so that the class of the object is determined by the user. The only requirements on this class is that it implements the needed ones of the following operators:

Currently, double and float are supported for DataType. In each operator, the function void hiflow::AssemblyAssistant::initialize_for_element(const Element< DataType >& element, const Quadrature< DataType >& element_quadrature), which prepares for the local integral computation, that should be performed on the given element and with the given quadrature rule. The operator performs the local integration or assembly on the element, and returns the value, vector or matrix respectively via the third parameter. The output parameter is guaranteed to be of the correct dimension, and all values are set to 0, so that there is no need to do this inside the function.

Defining the local assembler

The user-defined class, called a "local assembler" can be defined in any way to provide a local contribution from an element to the global integration entity. Most practical cases, however, share the following characteristics:

The transformation to the reference element is normally performed using an element of type CellTransformation. An object of this class defines a transformation $F_K : \hat{K} \rightarrow K $. Letting $J = DF_K$ be the jacobian matrix of the transformation, the integral on the reference element $\hat{K}$ becomes

\[ \int_{K}{G(x) dx} = \int_{\hat{K}}{G(F(\xi)) \vert\det{J}\vert d\xi} \]

The transformed integral is then approximated using a quadrature formula, which is a weighted sum of function values at a set of points $\xi_q$ in the reference element:

\[ \int_{\hat{K}}{G(F(\xi))\vert\det{J(\xi)}\vert d\xi} \approx \sum_{q = 1}^{N_q}{w_q \cdot G(F(\xi_q)) \cdot \vert\det{J(\xi_q)}\vert} \]

where $w_q$ are the quadrature weights.

If such a transformation and approximation is used, the task of the local assembler class is to compute the sum in the previous approximation. In order to achieve this, it needs to obtain the values $w_q$, $G(F(\xi_q))$ and ${J()}$ for all the quadrature points $q$ and sum them up in a loop.

Since this type of assembly is so common, HiFlow includes special support for obtaining these values, by using the AssemblyAssistant class. This class helps the user evaluate the local shape functions, transformation quantities and quadrature parameters, which greatly simplifies the implementation of a local assembler. A recommended way of using the AssemblyAssistant is to derive the local assembler class (privately). The AssemblyAssistant has to be initialized for each element, which is best done with a call to AssemblyAssistant::initialize_for_element as the first thing in the local assembler's function with the same name. After that, the functions in the AssemblyAssistant can be used directly in the assembly operator(), which gives a simple syntax since no object is used to access the values.

See also
AssemblyAssistant